What is Monogenic Diabetes?
It is a type of diabetes caused by an alteration (mutation) in a single gene (monogenic). The mutation in the gene causing these diseases is passed down from parents to their children, with the possibility of members within one family being affected over generations (i.e. grandparents, parents and children).
Monogenic Diabetes (MD) affects around 3-4% of people with diabetes. However, it frequently goes unrecognized.
There are two types of Monogenic Diabetes:
- Neonatal Diabetes. This type of MD is diagnosed before 6 months of age. Genes involved in this type of MD are KCNJ11, ABCC8 and INS.
- Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY). This type of MD often develops in late childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. However, it has been known to develop in adults as late as their 50s.
Currently, the genes involved in the majority of patients with MODY are: HNF4A (MODY 1), Glucokinase (MODY 2), HNF1A (MODY3), HNF1B –Renal Cysts and Diabetes- (MODY5), IPF1 and NeuroD1.